Friday, December 31, 2010

The paradox of the King of Peace

The baby that was born in the manger was not exactly what the Jews must have been expecting their Saviour to be.
There was a good sermon at church on sunday about Isaiah 9
6 For to us a child is born,
   to us a son is given;
 and the government shall be upon his shoulder,
   and his name shall be called
Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
    Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
7Of the increase of his government and of peace
    there will be no end,
on the throne of David and over his kingdom,
   to establish it and to uphold it
 with justice and with righteousness
   from this time forth and forevermore.
Jesus was not quite the Saviour that might be expected from this passage. A baby born in a stable in an obscure part of the Roman empire. In that context a Governor who brings peace would be the Pax Romana - a political "peace" that was brought by violence and fear. Wikipedia states:
Romans regarded peace not as an absence of war, but the rare situation that existed when all opponents had been beaten down beyond the ability to resist.[3]

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

A secular education is an oxymoron

It is hard for me to believe that modern history and western literature can really be understood without a good knowledge of the Bible and the basics of theology; regardless of whether one believes it or not. I have even heard Richard Dawkins make this point! Alister McGrath has a relevant book, In the Beginning: The Story of the King James Bible and how it changed a Nation, a language, and a culture.

However, it seems the new national curriculum proposed for Australia claims otherwise, as discussed here. Just before Christian there was a good opinion piece in the Australian, Bible study opens door to mastering literature.

The picture is from the Gospel of John in the Lindisfarne Gospels.

The interplay between football and politics

Football is art; but also politics, economics, and sociology.

I bought a great book for my family for Christmas, How Soccer explains the world: an unlikely theory of globalization. I really enjoyed reading the fascinating mix of history (both football and political). Each chapter focuses on a different country (Serbia, Scotland, Italy, Ukraine, Brazil, England, Spain, ...) and how football clubs become expressions of politics, racism, corruption, capitalism, and nationalism. As a purist who enjoys football for its own sake, I found aspects of the book are quite depressing. It almost makes you want to never watch a professional football game again.

The book is very well written and easy to read. The main weakness is it does not achieve what its title (and every chapter heading) claims. It does not really show that football explains anything. What it really does (and does it very well) is show how football reflects and interacts with significant social change such as globalisation. The book reflects the common fallacy of not distinguishing between causality and correlation. For example, the Rangers-Celtic rivalry/animosity in Glasgow does not cause or explain the origins of the ethnic (Irish vs. Scottish) / "religious" (Catholic vs. Protestant) animosity. I think the Rangers-Celtic rivalry provides a vehicle for some people to express some of these hatreds.

The book also illustrates humanities deep need for community, group identity, to be right, and to express passionate emotions. I sometimes think that being a fanatical fan can provide outlets that God intended us to express in worship and church life. 

The author is Franklin Foer, who was editor of The New Republic from 2006-2010. There is an interesting review in the New York Times. 

In conclusion, it is a great piece of literature and even if you are not a football fan, you will learn a lot about the world from reading it.

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Barking at woolly priorities

I am a effusive dog owner. But sometimes things need to be kept in perspective.... We live in a very affluent age; many of us have too much time and money. I think this is reflected in an article in todays Wall Street Journal about how some owners of border collies [who have a very strong herding instinct] are renting sheep to keep them entertained!

Saturday, December 25, 2010

An American Christmas icon

Last night my family followed an American Christmas tradition and watched the iconic movie It's a Wonderful Life. It is a "feel good" movie about the value of one life and how we can be a much greater blessing to people than we realise. It also highlights the personal cost to one man of standing for justice in a community.

It is interesting to see how banks, debt, and mortgages figured heavily in American life in the first half of the twentieth century, as they do this Christmas.

There is an interesting post about the movie on the Desiring God website. [My wife brought it to my attention]. As long as you don't use the movie to define your theology, your concept of heaven, or your notion of what Christmas is all about, then it is good harmless fun. But is such a separation really possible?

Friday, December 24, 2010

The end of parenting

Ross Campbell has written a number of books on parenting that my wife and I have found very helpful. We are currently reading Help your Twentysomething get a Life... It discusses the phenomena of the "boomerang generation" who are coming back to live in their parents homes as adults ... sometimes bringing with them emotional scars, large financial debts, little motivation, and young children...
Some of these problems are a consequence of modern affluence and a desire to "bless" our children, not realising that we are not helping them reach independence and maturity.
My children are not twenty yet, but the book does have helpful advice and warnings that are relevant.

The full Doonesbury comic from December 19 is here.

Thursday, December 23, 2010

What can Christians expect of a secular society?

There is a good op-ed piece A Tough Season for Believers in the New York Times by Ross Douthat. Here are a couple of extracts:
University of Virginia sociologist James Davison Hunter’s “To Change the World,” [is] an often withering account of recent Christian attempts to influence American politics and society....
Thanks in part to this bunker mentality, American Christianity has become what Hunter calls a “weak culture” — one that mobilizes but doesn’t convert, alienates rather than seduces, and looks backward toward a lost past instead of forward to a vibrant future. In spite of their numerical strength and reserves of social capital, he argues, the Christian churches are mainly influential only in the “peripheral areas” of our common life. In the commanding heights of culture, Christianity punches way below its weight....
Christians need to find a way to thrive in a society that looks less and less like any sort of Christendom — and more and more like the diverse and complicated Roman Empire where their religion had its beginning, 2,000 years ago this week.
It is great to see such issues being discussed in the "public square".
Indeed, if Western Christians read the book of Revelation we should not find the secular nature of  Christmas or of public policy hard, but to be expected.

Winter wonderland holiday

My family and sister-in-laws family (plus their cute puppy) just had a wonderful cross country skiing holiday. We  skiied about 2 km from the car park to one of the Summit Meadows cabins near Mt. Hood, Oregon. We had to carry all our own food and clothes. It was a wonderful time, even if we never really saw Mt. Hood.

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Hitler's mistaken theology

Just after World War II, Karl Barth gave a series of lectures in the bombed out remains of Bonn University. These were later published as Dogmatics in Outline. He gives a beautiful and profound exposition of each phrase of the Apostle's Creed. Chapter 7 is "God Almighty". Here are a few extracts:
God is not 'power in itself'.... when Hitler used to speak about God, he called him `the Almighty.' But it is not 'the Almighty' who is God; we cannot understand from the standpoint of a supreme concept of power who God is.... God's power is from the start the power of law.... God's power is holy, righteous, merciful, patient, kindly power.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Creation is not creationism

There is an interesting New York Times article Astronomer sues University of Kentucky, claiming his faith cost him a job.
One lesson is: always assume any email you sent will become public.
The article also underscores how some scientists have trouble distinguishing belief in the Christian doctrine of creation, from young earth creationism, anti-evolutionism, and intelligent design.
A deposition in the law suit makes fascinating (and scary) reading. Naive academics are no match for lawyers!

Sunday, December 19, 2010

The special relationship Down Under

I am currently in the USA with my family and in-laws. My wife opened a copy of the New York Times to discover a full-page advert with a statement about Australia-US relations that had been signed by 90,000+ Australians. The statement concerns the poor treatment of Wikileaks founder, Julian Assange, by the US and Australian governments. It is organised by GetUp! a new internet based Australian political. There is much that I would not agree with  GetUp!  but I thought this was a well thought out and valid statement and so I just signed it.

Hawking back tracks?

There is an interesting article in the November issue of Scientific American,  Hawking versus God: What Did the Physicist Really Say about the Deity? The battle for eternity is fought on Larry King live. Here is an extract:

As the media frenzy spread from bloggers and tweeters to prime-time television, the authors countered that they never meant to claim that science proved that there is no God. “God may exist,” Hawking told CNN’s Larry King, adding, “but science can explain the universe without the need for a creator.”
“We don’t say we’ve proved that God doesn’t exist.” Mlodinow says. “We don’t even say we’ve proved that God hasn’t created the universe.” As for the laws of physics, he says, some may choose to call those God. “If you think that God is the embodiment of quantum theory, that’s fine.”

Friday, December 17, 2010

Another fallen scholar

I wrote an earlier post Fallen scholars about the issue of how we evaluate and respond to the work and ideas of scholars who have their own personal moral failings. When in the bookstore this week I encountered another case. You can buy a copy of Technological Slavery: the complete writings of Ted Kaczysnki, otherwise known as the Unabomber, who is currently in Federal Prison for killing three people.
The book points out that he receives none of the funds from the book sales; they go to the American Red Cross. It contains several endorsements from people who stress they do not endorse his violent acts but have to concede that some of his ideas have merits and should be engaged with.

You can read the complete text of Industrial society and its future online. Decide for yourself. There are thirteen references in the complete writings to Jacques Ellul whose ideas do have a resonance with Kaczynski.

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Are you wealthy?

Much of the discussion about tax cuts for the wealthy in the US defines "wealthy" as a household income of more than $250,000 per annum. There is a good article in today's LA Times, How much money makes you wealthy? It all depends... by Geraldine Baum. A few things it points out. Only 2.5 per cent of Americans make more than this amount.
There is nothing in sociology or economics that defines what income you need to be rich," said Joel Slemrod, a University of Michigan economics professor and tax policy expert.
Survey data have helped economists understand popular views — and perceptions vary widely. Slemrod cited one survey showing that Americans, on average, believe an income of $122,000 is enough to be rich. "The higher your income," he said, "the more money you think you need to be rich."
The latter point also agrees with my limited experience. Most people I meet define the wealthy as one or two higher levels of income or affluence than themselves. This includes people who have million dollar homes, stock portfolios, drive luxury cars, take family holidays overseas, and send their children to private schools.

Did you receive a high school education? Do you have electricity and clean running water in your home? Do you always have enough food to eat? Do you sometimes drive a car? Do you have a bank account? Do you have access to medical and hospital care?
Then you are more affluent than something like 95 per cent of the world's population.
6Now there is great gain in godliness with contentment, 7for we brought nothing into the world, and we cannot take anything out of the world. 8But if we have food and clothing, with these we will be content. 9But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. 10For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evils. It is through this craving that some have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many pangs.
1 Timothy 6:6-10

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

My kingdom is not of this world

This is a German postage stamp that was issued to mark the 50th anniversary of the Barmen declaration, largely written by Karl Barth, and adopted by German churches who stood against Hitler's attempt to establish a "German church" which identify God's Kingdom with the Third Reich.

God is on our side. That is what every nationalistic movement wants to believe and can be used to justify not only war but also atrocities.

I am currently reading a fascinating book, Heavenly serbia: from myth to genocide by Branimir Anauzulovic which chronicles the blending of nationalism, church, folklore, and violence in the history of Serbia. A good summary and critical review of the book is here.

I recommend reading the full text of the Barmen declaration. Although, obviously written is specific historical context, there is much to be challenged about the sin of idolatry of nation and State, and the Lordship of Christ over the church. That is relevant to people of every nation and at any time.

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

Judge not and you will not be judged

There is no doubt that peoples childhoods have a significant effect on their behaviour as adults. This does not excuse wrong doing but at least should lead to compassion and a hesitancy to judgement. Consider a man with the following background. His mother was a prostitute. His father's other children expelled him from the family home. This led to him hanging out with "a band of worthless fellows". But because of his physical prowess, his relatives later recruited him as their military leader, in a cynical and desperate bid to ensure their own survival. I doubt he benefited from much moral guidance from his father or the warmth of family life!
What should we expect of such a person? Do we have right to pass judgement on such a man for making foolish promises which he then keeps to save face? Who is the man? This is the background of Jephthath, a Judge of Israel, who sacrificed his own daughter to fulfill a foolish vow he made to the LORD.

A previous post The shock value of Judges presents a complementary perspective.

Aside: It is interesting that Handel wrote an oratorio Jephtha but did not follow the Biblical text in having Jephthah's daughter sacrificed.

"Jephtha's Rash Vow", by James Gundee and M. Jones, London. Published January 20, 1807. Illustrates the description of Jephtha in Antiquities of the Jews, Book V, by Flavius Josephus

Monday, December 13, 2010

Revelation about the Trinity

How is revelation defined? Karl Barth has an interesting discussion in Church Dogmatics 1.1, Section 8, which I reproduce some of below. He contends that revelation cannot be define a priori and divorced from Scripture. He also stresses the Trinitarian nature of revelation. The Father reveals Himself through the Son by means of the Spirit. The paragraph in italics below is the summary.GOD IN HIS REVELATION
God's Word is God Himself in His revelation. For God reveals Himself as the Lord and according to Scripture this signifies for the concept of revelation that God Himself in unimpaired unity yet also in unimpaired distinction is Revealer, Revelation, and Revealedness.
1. THE PLACE OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY IN DOGMATICSIf in order to clarify how Church proclamation is to be measured by Holy Scripture we first enquire into the prior concept of revelation, ...Perhaps more important than anything dogmatics can say with reference to the pre-eminent place of Scripture in the Church and over against the Church is the example which dogmatics itself must give in its own fundamental statements. It must try to do what is undoubtedly required of the Church in general, namely, to pay heed to Scripture, not to allow itself to take its problems from anything else but Scripture. The basic problem with which Scripture faces us in respect of revelation is that the revelation attested in it refuses to be understood as any sort of revelation alongside which there are or may be others. It insists absolutely on being understood in its uniqueness. But this means that it insists absolutely on being understood in terms of its object, God. It is the revelation of Him who is called Yahweh in the Old Testament and θεός [theos = God] or, concretely, κύριος [kurios = LORD] in the New Testament. The question of the self-revealing God which thus forces itself upon us as the first question cannot, if we follow the witness of Scripture, be separated in any way from the second question: How does it come about, how is it actual, that this God reveals Himself? Nor can it be separated from the third question: What is the result? What does this event do to the man to whom it happens? Conversely the second and third questions cannot possibly be separated from the first. .... God reveals Himself. He reveals Himself through Himself. He reveals Himself. If we really want to understand revelation in terms of its subject, i.e., God, then the first thing we have to realise is that this subject, God, the Revealer, is identical with His act in revelation and also identical with its effect. ....we learn we must begin the doctrine of revelation with the doctrine of the triune God.

Saturday, December 11, 2010

Leaking logic?

Different people see things differently. There is a good New York Times article by Steven Erlanger, Europeans criticize fierce US response to leaks

A few random thoughts.

I find it puzzling that those who claim that the Wikileaks founder Jullian Assange should be prosecuted for espionage type crimes do not make the same claim about the journalists who publish the documents Wikileaks provides them.

Trivia: Assange studied physics at University of Melbourne.

You should always assume that any email you write will eventually become public. This is a point I have made several times on my work blog.

Personal integrity of leaders (in any sphere) is crucial. Moral failures will be exploited by your opponents.

I liked the irony and double standards pointed out by the excellent (and chilling) article by John Haughton in the Guardian:

On 21 January, secretary of state Hillary Clinton made a landmark speech about internet freedom, in Washington DC, which many people welcomed and most interpreted as a rebuke to China for its alleged cyberattack on Google. "Information has never been so free," declared Clinton. "Even in authoritarian countries, information networks are helping people discover new facts and making governments more accountable."
She went on to relate how, during his visit to China in November 2009, Barack Obama had "defended the right of people to freely access information, and said that the more freely information flows the stronger societies become. He spoke about how access to information helps citizens to hold their governments accountable, generates new ideas, and encourages creativity." Given what we now know, that Clinton speech reads like a satirical masterpiece.

Friday, December 10, 2010

A fun Christmas movie

Last night my family watched A Christmas in Connecticut, a light hearted movie from 1944. It is good harmless fun. A trivial aside is that when Barbara Stanwyck made the movie she was the highest paid woman in the USA.

Countries are like families

Sometimes when it is hard to understand politics, budgets, economics, and sociology I find it helpful to think of nations and states like big families. Drawing on this analogy, there was a good New York Times opinion piece by Thomas Friedman, Still digging.

It is amazing (and sad) for me to watch the battle going on in the USA about tax cuts for the wealthy. Ideology rules. At some point you have to compromise and realise that when you have a huge debt, you have to make hard and painful decisions: cut spending, raise revenue or do both. You can't keep putting it off...

Thursday, December 9, 2010

New book on science and the Bible

I have been asked to review the new book, Science, Creation, and the Bible by Richard F. Carlson and Tremper Longman III. Here are the chapter headings.

  1. Theological and Scientific Sources and Their Interpretation
  2. Characteristics of Theology and Science Relevant to the Conflict
  3. Biblical Interpretation–A Key Element in Resolving the Creation-Evolution Conflict
  4. Creation in the Old Testament
  5. Creation in the New Testament
  6. Genesis 1–2:3 and Genesis 2:25
  7. Genesis 1 and 2 as a Worldview Statement of the Ancient People of Israel
I am looking forward to this. It is admirable that one author is a scientist and the other an Old Testament scholar.

    Monday, December 6, 2010

    Keeping the poison in perspective

    This week I was surprised to see that The San Fransciso Chronicle had a front page article about biochemistry, Mono lake bacterium seen as model for life in space. The article was stimulated by a paper about to appear in the journal Science, A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic rather than phosporous. Earlier in the week a teasing press release from NASA had stimulated all sorts of wild speculation on the internet.
    This episode reminds me of all the hype surrounding the claimed discovery of "life on mars" about decade ago, which was actually the discovery of some "dead germ materials on a meteorite that may have come from mars" which later turned out to be have other possible explanations. Some commentators said the discovery presented profound problems for Christianity. I failed to see this, even before the evaporation of the results.
    So what has been discovered this time? Basically what the title of the Science paper says. In the extreme conditions found in Mono lake it seems there are some bacteria which are quite different from most other living things on the planet, which are poisoned by arsenic. These bacteria actually use arsenic instead of phosphorous. Do such life forms exist elsewhere? Where they important in the origin of life on earth? Maybe, but we have NO evidence. So any claims about life elsewhere are pure speculation and not scientific.

    Who belongs in church?

    Yesterday, in Seattle, my brother-in law and sister-in-law took my family to a performance of The Best Christmas Pageant Ever by the Attic Theatre. It was not only entertaining and amusing but had a strong message of grace that Christmas (and church) is for everyone, regardless of their history or background.

    For the Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost.
    Luke 19:10

    Friday, December 3, 2010

    Huxley on the limits of science

    T.H. Huxley (1825-1925) coined the term agnostic and was known for his antagonism towards Christian orthodoxy. Hence, I found it surprising to come across the following quote which I read in a report of John Hedley Brooke's talk at the 2010 London Conference of Christians in Science.
    The antagonism between science and religion, about which we hear so much, appears to me to be purely factitious — fabricated, on the one hand, by short-sighted religious people who confound a certain branch of science, theology, with religion; and, on the other, by equally short-sighted scientific people who forget that science takes for its province only that which is susceptible of clear intellectual comprehension; and that, outside the boundaries of that province, they must be content with imagination, with hope, and with ignorance. 
    The interpreters of Genesis and the interpreters of Nature (1885)
    For more on Huxley and the famous non-debate with Wilberforce in Oxford see this earlier post.

    Thursday, December 2, 2010

    Are Australians the WEIRDest people?

    You often see the strangest things in public printers. Today I was visiting the chemistry department at Berkeley and while waiting for a colleague in a meeting room I noticed someone had printed a paper, The Weirdest People in the World? from the Journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences, so I quickly skimmed it. Here are a few intriguing observations.

    Henrich, Heiner, and Norenzayan [from the Psychology Department at University of British Columbia], the authors of the paper, define WEIRD as Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, and Democratic. Their main point is that most "standard subjects" in studies of human psychology and behaviour are actually USA undergraduate students who are not only WEIRD but actually not representative of humanity in general! One example is the following.

    A 2002 paper in the journal Nature, Altruistic Punishment in Humans, claimed to resolve the puzzle, Why are humans often altruistic when there is no evolutionary advantage? The Swiss authors found that there was a strong tendency for subjects (all WEIRD) to be willing to spend some of their own resources to punish fellow members of society who were "free loaders" who were not altruistic. In particular they claimed to show that "cooperation flourishes if altruistic punishment is possible, and breaks down if it is ruled out. "
    However, Henrich et al., discuss a 2008 paper in the journal Science, by Hermann et al. Antisocial punishment across societies which contains the fascinating graphic below. One of the main findings of this study was that the extent of punishment of anti-social behaviour varied significantly between societies, even to the extent that some societies actually tended to punish altruism. But, what got my attention was that Australians showed the strongest tendency to punish free loaders!

    Wednesday, December 1, 2010

    Special or not so special

    I just flew Brisbane to Los Angeles. I watched two movies. The first was The Other Guys which was barely o.k. as a plane movie but would probably be mediocre in a normal context. The second was The Special Relationship about the relationship of Tony Blair and Bill Clinton. I found it quite educational (especially about Kosovo) but a bit depressing because it is probably quite believable. I thought it made of the main players Cherie Blair came out looking good but the Clintons and Tony Blair were not portrayed in a sympathetic light (I am not saying they should be). I thought the picture it painted of the Blairs was somewhat reminiscent of that in The Queen.

    Monday, November 29, 2010

    Robert Boyle FRS: distinguished scientist and Christian

    Robert Boyle (1627-1691) was one of the founders of the Royal Society and of the field of chemistry. It is worth reading the Wikipedia entry about his theological interests. One of his last books was The Christian Virtuoso (above) which set forth arguments for a clockwork universe created by God. The first new biography of Boyle to appear in a generation is Robert Boyle: between God and science, by Michael Hunter (University of London) has just been published by Yale University Press. An essay review of the book by Colin Gauld is available here.

    Sunday, November 28, 2010

    Can you see the wood for the trees?

    I have finished my first draft of the resource article on emergence for Test of Faith.
    I welcome feedback.

    Saturday, November 27, 2010

    Finding similarities and differences in interfaith dialogue

    This week I encountered a new term, "Judeo-Islamic tradition." It occurs in an interview with Mark Cohen in the latest issue of the Princeton Alumni Weekly. He states:
    The term “Judeo-Christian tradition” only became popular after World War I and especially after the rise of Nazism in Europe. In fact, Judaism is much closer to Islam in its belief system and practice than it is to Christianity. My emeritus colleague Bernard Lewis coined the term “Judeo-Islamic tradition” to describe it.

    I think this illustrates a profoundly important difference. Islam and Judaism are based on law. Christianity is based on grace.

    Friday, November 26, 2010

    When swearing is no private matter

    I was part of an interesting discussion this morning about the etymology of the word testify and whether it is connected to testicles! The best discussion I could find online is at the Random House Word of the Day.
    There it is suggested that there is no connection in Latin or Greek but there may be in Hebrew, going back ot Genesis 24:
    2And Abraham said to his servant, the oldest of his household, who had charge of all that he had, "Put your hand under my thigh, 3that I may make you swear by the LORD, the God of heaven and God of the earth.
    Any Old Testament experts want to weigh in?

    Thursday, November 25, 2010

    There are no self-made men

    When we are successful most of would like to think [even if only on the sub-conscious level] that it is because of our own initiative, efforts, abilities, cleverness, .... But how much is any success I experience just a gift a God, which should lead to thankfulness, humility, and generosity. I always find the following passage from Deuteronomy 8 rather challenging. It is Moses sermon warning the Israelites before they enter the promised land.
    11"Take care lest you forget the LORD your God by not keeping his commandments and his rules and his statutes, which I command you today, 12 lest, when you have eaten and are full and have built good houses and live in them, 13and when your herds and flocks multiply and your silver and gold is multiplied and all that you have is multiplied, 14 then your heart be lifted up, and you forget the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery, 15who led you through the great and terrifying wilderness, with its fiery serpents and scorpions and thirsty ground where there was no water, who brought you water out of the flinty rock, 16who fed you in the wilderness with manna that your fathers did not know, that he might humble you and test you, to do you good in the end. 17Beware lest you say in your heart, 'My power and the might of my hand have gotten me this wealth.' 18You shall remember the LORD your God, for it is he who gives you power to get wealth, that he may confirm his covenant that he swore to your fathers, as it is this day.
    The passage challenges me a personal level. But to me, it also raises some political questions, particularly to conservatives who strongly advocate everyone "pulling themselves up by their bootstraps" and the wealthy keeping all their money because they "deserve it" and "have earned it." What do others think?

     The painting is The grapes of the Promised Land by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665).

    Monday, November 22, 2010

    Fallen scholars

    What should be our attitude towards the work of German scholars who were members of the Nazi party? Two cases have bought this to mind in the past week. In the previous post, I gave a quote from Karl Barth who favourably mentioned the work of the theologian Emmanuel Hirsch, who I discovered was a member of the Nazi party. Karl Barth was the principal author of the Barmen Declaration and was forced to resign from his position at Bonn University because he refused to swear an oath to Hitler. Hence, he was hardly sympathetic to National Socialism!
    The second example of a fallen scholar from the Nasi era iis the philosopher Martin Heidigger. The Wikipedia page concerning him makes fascinating reading. He was author of one of the most influential books in philosophy in the twentieth century. When Rector [i.e. President or Vice-chancellor] of Freiburg University he made speeches in support of Hitler. Those significantly influenced by Heidigger include Rudolf Bultmann, Gadamer, and Derrrida.

    I can think of three several possible attitudes towards the scholarly work of such people:
    * Outright dismissal fueled by moral indignation
    * Turning a blind eye and hoping that their philosophy and theology was completely unrelated to their political involvement.
    * Cautious critique which acknowledges that one can never completely separate philosophy, theology, political views, and personal choices. But justice, punishment, compassion, and humility should not be separated either.

    I am eager to hear other perspectives.

    The beginning of pluralism

    Stimulated by a discussion about doubt with a friend I have been re-reading the chapter Doubt in Karl Barth's Evangelical Theology: an introduction. It is really stimulating and helpful. But this post is just to note how I was intrigued with the following claim:
    doubt can also have its cause in the community that encircles the theologian, in the feebleness, disunity, and perhaps even the perverseness of the form and proclamation of his own familiar Church. The great crisis of Christian faith, as well as of Christian theology, that arose in the seventeenth century did not have its primary basis in the rise of modern science, for instance, or of the absolute state which later also became religiously indifferent. According to the illuminating hypothesis of Emmanuel Hirsch, this crisis arose prior to all such shocks, simply in the painfully confusing fact of the stable juxtaposition and opposition of three different churches. Sealed officially and demonstratively in the Peace of Westphalia, these three different confessions each represented exclusive claims to revelation which relativized the claims of each. Subsequent acquaintance with the great non-Christian religions of the Near and Far East underlined this relativity still more painfully. 

    Sunday, November 21, 2010

    The reality of mental health

    There is a good column about not taking mental health for granted by Kathleen Noonan, a columnist in our local tabloid.

    Article on emergence for Test of Faith

    Test of Faith is a major initiative of the Faraday Institute for Science and Religion at Cambridge. It consists of an excellent film, book, and course material which discuss the issue of the relationship between science and Christianity. It is particularly oriented for use in small groups in churches. Check it out!

    There are additional resources. One of the Short articles is Darwin's Test of Faith: Lessons from a Victorian agnostic by Nick Spencer. It gives a really nice discussion of how the faith that Charles Darwin "lost" with the death of his daughter was a faith based on the rationalistic ordered natural theology of perfection of William Paley which could not entertain suffering in perfection. This is in contrast to a cross-centred faith that involves the suffering of Christ on the cross and is beyond completely rational explanation and understanding.

    They have asked me to write a Short article on the issue of emergence. It is meant to be at a basic level, accessible to high school graduates. I worked on it today. Hopefully I will post a draft for comment this week.

    Update: the final version is here.

    Saturday, November 20, 2010

    Inter-disciplinary studies require great discipline

    "The problem with a lot of multi-disciplinary studies is that they do not show a lot of discipline."
    I am told this was said by Michael Fisher, a famous theoretical physicist, who at one time was a Professor of Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics at Cornell University.

    As someone who works at the interface of chemistry and physics, and has an interest in the dialogue between science and theology I see this problem of lack of discipline more often than I would like.

    It is fascinating to find connections and parallels between concepts, phenomena, and ideas which at first may appear different and unconnected. But when are these good and helpful? When are they just silly and misleading?

    It should always be born in mind that correlation does not equal causality. Rich people eat more fresh tomatoes than poor people but this is not what makes them rich!

    Here are a few examples of attempted connections that I find weak:

    In the classic art history textbook Gardner's Art through the Ages it is argued that it is no accident that early in the twentieth century two revolutionary new ways of looking at the world developed: the cubism of Picasso and the relativity of Einstein.

    Chaos theory and postmodern literary criticism are both concerned with instability and "nonlinearity". Much of this "connection" was made by Katherine Hayles in her book, Chaos Bound. It was widely acclaimed in literary circles but panned in Higher Superstition by Paul Gross and Norman Levitt.

    The attempt of Sir Roger Penrose in The Emperor's New Mind to make connections between consciousness, intractable computations, the quantum measurement problem, and quantum gravity.

    So caution is in order. What criteria should we use for judging success?
    I am not sure, but one is that at least one of the two disciplines should be enriched by interaction with the other.

    Teaching our children about wisdom or modelling greed?

    Probably like you I sometimes end up at strange but interesting places on the internet. I will spare you the story. But here are couple of things I found fascinating:

    I found interesting the Wikipedia entry about the book Rich Dad, Poor Dad by Kiyosaki and Lechter [I first heard about it a sermon at church as an example of the distorted values of our society]. The last two sentences are amusing/sad:

    In the February 2003 issue of Smart Money magazine, Kiyosaki backed off his claim that his "rich dad" was a real person, instead saying, "Is Harry Potter real? Why don’t you let Rich Dad be a myth, like Harry Potter?"
    In 2007, Lechter sued Kiyosaki, alleging numerous instances of financial misconduct. The suit was settled for an undisclosed sum over a year later.
    This links to an article in the Sydney Morning Herald Spare us the finance evangelists and their false profits. As an aside, this might be cautionary reading for sincere American Christian leaders who make visits to Australia promoting their latest methods ....

    Friday, November 19, 2010

    A word on universities

    I was going to write a post on the etymology of the word University, but it turned out not to be what I thought!. Somehow I thought that the word was related to the unity of knowledge, and I could rant about that should be the true focus and purpose of a university. However, Word of the day says it really had more to do with a legal and administrative unity:
    both studium and universitas were Latin and so Oxford’s transition to university status, which happened in 1231 didn’t show up as an English word right away. Even when it gained the Latin label universitas the word didn’t mean specifically that Oxford was a place of higher learning, instead universitas meant that it was incorporated.
    Literally it meant “turned into one.” 

    Thursday, November 18, 2010

    Great entertainment for kids

    I previously posted about the fascinating story behind the classic hymn It is well with my soul. I should have mentioned where I first heard this story. Adventures in Odyssey is a great radio program for kids, maybe aged 5 to 12. Each show is a story, which vary greatly in content, humour, intensity, and relevance to Christianity. You can also listen to it online and buy CDs. We used to listen to tapes of it in the car, when my kids were younger. They loved it. The particular episode about the hymn is here.

    Tuesday, November 16, 2010

    There is knowledge and there is knowledge

    I really like the book, Five minds for the future, by Howard Gardner.  I find the emphasis on scholarship, teaching, and learning quite inspiring, refreshing and challenging.
    However, I do have  a minor bone to pick with something I just read.
    Chapter 3, "The Synthesizing mind" begins
    In the Western sacred tradition, the story of human beings begins in the Garden of Eden, when Adam was enticed to take a first bite of fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. For the generations that immediately followed the biblical Adam, knowledge accumulated at a sufficiently slow rate that it could be passed on orally....
    I think this represents a significant misunderstanding and  misapplication of the Genesis narrative. I do not think it is not about academic knowledge but something very different, a loss of moral purity and innocence. The text of Genesis 2 and 3 actually says:

    16And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, "You may surely eat of every tree of the garden,17but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die."....

    1Now the serpent was more crafty than any other beast of the field that the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, "Did God actually say, 'You shall not eat of any tree in the garden'?" 2And the woman said to the serpent, "We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, 3but God said, 'You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.'" 4But the serpent said to the woman, "You will not surely die. 5For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.6So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate. 7Then the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked. 

    The image is Temptation and Fall by William Blake (1808)

    Sunday, November 14, 2010

    Living with adversity

    This morning at church we sang the classic hymn, It is well with my soul. There is a fascinating and gut-wrenching story that goes behind the circumstances that led to Horatio Stafford to pen it. The original manuscript is now in the US Library of Congress and is shown above.

    Saturday, November 13, 2010

    Worship the Creator of the creation

    What are the main points of Genesis 1-2? I previously posted about the fact God resting on the seventh day of creation sets the stage for the significance of the Sabbath and the Rest that God offers his people.
    I think Genesis 1-2 also sets the stage for the commandments to the Israelites (and us) to turn away from idolatry and the worship of created things such as the sun and moon, animals, people, and carved images. Instead they should worship the Creator of these things, a God whose form they have not seen. This morning I read in Deuteronomy 4,
     15 "Therefore watch yourselves very carefully. Since you saw no form on the day that the LORD spoke to you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire, 16beware lest you act corruptly by making a carved image for yourselves, in the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female, 17the likeness of any animal that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged bird that flies in the air, 18the likeness of anything that creeps on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth. 19And beware lest you raise your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the host of heaven, you be drawn away and bow down to them and serve them, things that the LORD your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven..... 23 Take care, lest you forget the covenant of the LORD your God, which he made with you, and make a carved image, the form of anything that the LORD your God has forbidden you
    So the text makes clear a profound and practical point: worship the Creator not the creation. This point is independent of any perspectives (and arguments) about science, time scales, historicity, ....
    Aside: wikipedia gives a good historical overview of sun worship.

    Thursday, November 11, 2010

    Layers of listening

    You never listen!
    I did not feel heard.

    Why do we say things like this? What do we really mean?

    I have been reading through the book of Deuteronomy and noticing how the Israelites were rebuked by the LORD because they did not listen.

    It is interesting how there are layers of listening
    -hearing the sounds
    -hearing the words
    -understanding what information the words carry
    -understanding the feeling behind them
    -taking to heart the message and acting on it

    Wednesday, November 10, 2010

    Others: a hot new magazine

    I would not want to be one to start rumours... but I think I heard that the publishers of the women's magazine Self are going to break into new markets with a men's magazine entitled Others. I anticipate articles about:

    Careers and work: how to make sure your colleagues get the credit they deserve
    Marriage: how to manipulate your heart so your spouse gets what they want
    Money:  ten new ways to give away more money
    Sex: how to exercise greater self-control and live with less
    Movies: the five best agape thrillers
    Self image: more contentment, patience, joy, ...
    Public transport: faster than ever before ...

    I did a web search but could not find any details. Let me know if you find them or hear more. But, maybe I was dreaming last night ... or I am struggling with my mental health and distinguishing reality from fantasy...

    Sunday, November 7, 2010

    Football is art

    We are big football fans in our house. Last night we were ecstatic that Brisbane Roar played some beautiful football and outclassed their nearest competitors Adelaide to cement their place at the top of the A-League. But enough ....

    This post is actually about recommending a fantastic video The Art of Football from A to Z featuring John Cleese. He goes through the alphabet (A is for attack, B is for ball, ... G is for Goal, ... M is for money, ... Q is for Quantum Physics!!) and interviews various famous soccer players (Pele, Henry, Beckenbauer, ...) and managers (Wenger) as well as artists, musicians, and politicians (Desmond Tutu, Henry Kissinger, Dennis Hopper, ...
     The  DVD has a brilliant interspersion of humour, brilliant football, philosophy, ...
    It makes a convincing case that football is art.

    Friday, November 5, 2010

    A significant change of preference?

    [Aside: I first posted this on my work research blog, condensed concepts, but thought I would put it here as well since it may be of interest to some readers here too].

    I am puzzled by something. Suppose I ask five people if they prefer tea or coffee? Three say coffee, two say tea. Four years later I ask them again. One of the five people has changed their mind, now two prefer coffee and three tea. Suppose the sample size is much larger, but still only one in five people change their preference. I would not say there was a "massive swing" in preference or that drinks "preference did an almost complete turnabout".

    Furthermore, suppose also that those five people had all previously said they did not wish to register as having a definite opinion on their preference. Then it should hardly be surprising if one in five changed their opinion.

    Hence, I am puzzled by an article in the Wall Street Journal by Gerald F. Seib, Unaligned votes tilt rightward en masse. It states:
    A massive swing by independent voters propelled the Republican Party to a series of key victories.... 
    In House races nationally, Republicans won the votes of independents—voters who said they aren't affiliated with any party—by a 55% to 40% margin, a compilation of exit polls from across the country showed.
    In other words, independents' preference did an almost complete turnabout over the last four years: They favored Democrats by 18 points then, Republicans by 15 points Tuesday.

    Barth as a cultural intellectual

    In the article I mentioned in my previous post Rudy Koshar states:
    Barth’s cultural provenance also reflects his status as a European intellectual conversant with the important thinkers of the time. The luminaries of high bourgeois culture appear scattered across Barth’s writings, especially in the Church Dogmatics, where perhaps many readers expect not to find them because of this publication’s “churchly” character. Such eclecticism is fitting for one whose work “orders all the paths of human wisdom, philosophical and religious, around the central core of a purely theological point of view.” In the Church Dogmatics we find commentaries of varied length on Mozart (Barth’s favorite composer), Shakespeare, Spinoza, Rousseau, Goethe, Hegel, Kant, Schopenhauer, Marx, Darwin, Richard Wagner, John Stuart Mill, Max Weber, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Jung, Jaspers, and many others interwoven with often labyrinthine theological and biblical references and historical analysis of Church doctrine. Barth’s stance of engagement within distance remains evident throughout this massive referential system, which (seeing that Barth often listened to Mozart as he worked) had the character of a symphonic score rather than a theological treatise.

    Tuesday, November 2, 2010

    The towering intellect of Barth

    Last night I read a fascinating paper, Where is Karl Barth in Modern European History?, by Rudy Koshar [a Professor of History at the University of Wsconsin-Madison], and published in the journal Modern Intellectual History. There is no doubt Barth is the towering figure of 20th century theology. Indeed, Koshar notes the secondary literature about Barth amounts to around fourteen thousand titles [I presume this is books, journal articles, and book chapters] in twenty-five different languages!
    Koshar makes a compelling case that although Barth's influence in European history, beyond the confines of theology, and into history, politics, and culture has been mistakenly overlooked.
    Kosher suggests that in academic history this oversight results from a "secular confessionalism" which refuses to acknowledge its own basis in faith but dismisses all religious claims as irrational.

    Kosher sings the praises of the Church Dogmatics for Barth's intellectual engagement with history, philosophy, music, and literature. This is driven by theology, but even secularists must respond to this analysis. It is noted that scholars have "celebrated Walter Benjamin's characterisation of civilization as "a document of barbarism"" but are unaware that Barth propounded such a view much earlier.

    The German Academy for Language and Literature awards it annual Sigmund Freud prize for academic prose. Barth received the prize in 1968. [Werner Heisenberg received it two years later!].

    To me, Barth represents a great model of real scholarship. The Church Dogmatics display a scope, balance, creativity, depth, originality, and thoroughness that is enviable and challenging.

    I think Barth also has much to offer the philosophy of science, issues of which are touched on in my paper on emergence in science and theology.

    But why was Barth so profound and influential? There is no doubt that he was a unique and very gifted individual. But, is it not more that he was obsessed with such a great subject: The Creator of the Universe who revealed himself through Jesus Christ. Indeed, I give Barth the last word:
    "The angels laugh at old Karl. They laugh at him because he tries to grasp the truth about God in a book of Dogmatics. They laugh at the fact that volume follows volume and each is thicker than the previous one. As they laugh, they say to one another, `Look! Here he comes now with his little pushcart full of volumes of the Dogmatics!' And they laugh about the men who write so much about Karl Barth instead of writing about the things he is trying to write about. Truly, the angels laugh."